12/26/2019 0 Comments
Green Logistic Or Sustainable Logistics Management Environmental Sciences Essay Logistics is a physical distribution, it is an area of high potential cost savings, improved customer satisfaction and competitive effectiveness. Following are coming under the logistic systems 1) Ware housing 2) Inventory control 3) Materials handling 4) Order processing 5) Transportation. 1. A Definition of the study: A widely accepted definition is the one provided by the council of Supply Chain Management professionals (CSMP. Previously Council of Logistic Management. CLM) in the USA is Logistic is the part of the supply chain process that plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers requirement. (P 195) (Business Administration for Students and Managers. Dr. Lawerence Mensah Akwetey 2011. Logistics is concerned with the efficient flow of raw materials of work in process inventory and of finished goods from supplier to customer. In addition to transportation logistics entails inventory control, warehousing, materials handling, order processing and related information activities involved in the flow of products. (Regan et al 2000) Green logistics is a traditional logistics seeks to organize forward distribution that is the transport, warehousing, Packaging and inventory management from the producer to consumer, environmental considerations opened up markets for recycling and disposal and led to the entire new subsector of reverse logistics. The reverse distribution involves the transport of waste and movement of used materials. While the terms reverse logistics is widely used. Other names have been applied such as reverse distribution reverse flow logistics and green logistics (Byne and Deep 1993). Freight transport provides the link in the supply chain between echelons that enable products to be available to the customer in the right place at the right time (Potter and Lalwani 2005) 1. B.Objective of the study: Review and analysis out how the logistic systems affect the environment. In the Green logistics, we have to make ensure the achievement of transport logistics compatible with the environment. The ideas of sustainable development originate from the 1987 Brundtland report (ACE 2004) also known as our common future. This report alerted the world to the urgency of making progress toward economic development that could be sustained without depleting natural resources or harming the environment. Example: Over recent years Irelands per capital have been house gas (GHG) emissions have risen to be one of the highest in Europe. This rise in emission is no small part attribute to the 165 % increase in transport emissions in the period 1990 to 2006.The focus of this study is on the development of environmentally conscious supply chains in Ireland through the studying the harmful impact that logistical activities have on the environment with this in mind the following section will define the Green or Sustainable supply chain and introduce the concept of sustainable logistics. Supply chain management was defined by Christopher (1998) is Supply chain management involves the management of upstream and downstream relationships with suppliers and customers to deliver superior customer value at less cost to the supply chain as a whole. Supply chains have been shown to high contributors to the carbon footprint of most goods (van Hoek 2001) with Eyefortransportv (2008) claiming that up to 75 % of a companys carbon footprint is derived from supply chain activities. The Green or Sustainable supply chain is an approach which seeks to minimise a product or services ecological footprint (Bearing point 2008). The concept covers all the phases of a products life cycle from the extraction of raw materials through the design, production and distribution phases to the use of the product by consumes and their eventual disposal of same. Sustainable logistics is a key element in the development of environmentally conscious /Green supply chain design. Green Design: Green design can be described as an approach which seeks to reduce a products environmental impact throughout its complete lifecycle through the design of the product. Green sourcing or Green Procurement: It is where environmental criteria are included in the decision making process when sourcing products or services. Green manufacturing: Has the goal of reducing the environmental impact of the manufacturing function in supply chains through the reduction of the environmental impact of the use of materials and energy. Green logistics: Has the aim of meeting cost targets and customer service levels with reduced pollution from the transport, warehousing, inventory management and distribution function in the supply chain. Sustainable logistics is a key element in the development of environmentally conscious/ green supply chain design. Reverse Logistics: It represents all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. It is vital component of green supply chains providing a means for products/materials to be returned from the user to the producer in order to be recycled, reused or reconditioned. Logistics and the Environment Freight transportation by road is the dominant mode of freight transport in many economies due mainly to the flexibility and speed that the movement of freight by road offers When compared to railway, inland waterway or Sea transport (Mason and Lalwani 2004).This is particularly true for Ireland as 90 % of freight traffic occurs in the road( Ryan et al 2003). In freight transport the burning of petrol and diesel fuels in internal combustion engines leads to the chemical by-product of Nitrous Oxide, Methane and most importantly Carbon Di Oxide. Transport in Ireland is a major contributing factor to Irelands overall emissions accounting for a 20.8 % share of total emissions in 2007, 97% of which is from road transport (EPA 2008) Aronsson (2006) highlighted major source of environmental problems have received during the last decade by transportation. Recommendation: As highlighted by Tenekcioglu (2004) certain mode of transportation such as rail and maritime transport are considered green modes because their effects are less detrimental to the environmental to the environment. These modes produce less pollution, less noise and account for less accident. GLOBAL WARMING The stern (2006) report on climate change outlines that it is now widely accepted that if no action is taken on reducing GHG emissions and in particular carbon Dioxide (co2) emissions that based on current trends in the next 50 years or so 2-3 Celsius increase in global temperature can be predicted causing disastrous effects in the areas of Food sources, water, Health, Land, Environment. For example Ireland National Climate change strategy 2007- 2012 report states that continued emissions of green house gases at or above rates would result climate system over this century than those observed to date. The department of transport Ireland (2009) estimate that over 30 % transport emissions in Ireland come from freight transport. If atmospheric concentration of green house gas had been stabilized at 2000 levels, warming and sea level rise would continue at least until the end of this century due to the time scales associated with climate process and feedback. (Department of the Environment heritage and Local government Ireland 2007) Effects: 1) A temperature increase of 0.2 Celsius per decade for the next two decades with a warming of 1.8 to 4 Celsius by 2100. 2) Global average sea level rise in the ranges 18- 38 cm for the low emissions scenario and 26-59 cm for the high emissions scenario. 3) It is very likely that hot extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation events will continue to become more frequent and likely that future tropical cyclones will become more intense. 4) Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to increasing acidification of the ocean. Standards, Tools Methodologies for sustainable supply chain management Sustainable supply chain implementation requires standards to allow measurement of environmental impact methodologies and support tools to allow adoption of environment practices. This provides an overview of standards, tools and methodologies for the implementation of sustainable supply chains. Environmental Management system EMS standards have been developed as tools to allow the management of organizations to better identify, manage and control their activities that can impact the environment.EMS standards were developed in the early 1990s in several countries. The standards was approved by the British Standards Institution (BSI) IN 1992 and became a model for the ISO standard 14401, which was elaborated in the years 1991-1996.The European Eco-Management and Audit scheme( EMAS) was adopted in 1993.(EEB 2003). ISO 14000 Specifies a set of measures to be incorporated into a companys management system aimed at dealing with environmental aspects in a systematic way including the following major elements. Definition of an environmental policy including performance objectives Assessment of environmental aspects Identification of legal obligations Establishing an Environmental management programme. Definition of procedures to achieve the objectives Monitoring of the systems and improvement The European EMAS scheme is based on the international standards but contains additional requirement Initial environmental review. Independent verification An accreditation system for verifiers Validated environmental statements Employee involvement Industrial carbon foot printing standards and Methodologies. A carbon footprint is The total set of green house gas emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual event, organisation, and product expressed as carbon Di Oxide (Carbon Trust 2007) The British standards Institute (BSI) developed the publicly available specification (PAS) 2050 as a method for measuring the embodied GHG emission from goods and services. Conclusion and Recommendations: Tackling waste in Freight transport. Lean supply chain management is a technique that analyses ways to eliminate wastes in the production process thus increasing efficiency. In supply chain management Mason and Lalwani (2006) identify some hidden wastes in transport and logistics management which eventually have to be paid for by supply chain customers. These wastes includes Slow vehicle turnaround times Low back haul levels Low fill rates Duplicated administration Poor fleet utilisation. If we avoid all those things we can maintain the sustainable logistics without damage the environment or with minimum damage of the environment.
The world is fast becoming a borderless place.Â Cultures, races, beliefs and ideologies are blend together and interact because of the growing advances in communications.Â In order to succeed in this world, one needs to be able to adapt to the various cultural differences as well as be able to maintain a certain sense of individual identity.Â This is one of the main reasons why I think the (insert name of college here) is the best place for me to cultivate and develop my talents.Life has been challenging for me to say the least.Â Unlike many who have gotten many opportunities in life, most of my opportunities have been the result of my hard work.Â When I graduated from Columbia-Greene Community College in December 2006 with an Associate in Science Degree, I have to admit that it was one of the proudest moments of my life.Â After all these years, the hard work and perseverance that I put in finally paid off and I was able to get the reward that I deserved.It may not seem like a big accomplishment for many people but that day marked the culmination of the years that I put in and the verified my success in the face of the many various challenges that I faced along the way.Â It does not appear on any transcript or college record but the fact that I am most proud of is that I accomplished all of this while being a single mother of two very lovely children.They say that college life is very challenging and that the only way to succeed and get high grades in college is by being a full time student.Â While I would have wanted to have that same opportunity, I had to do it the hard way; being instead a part time student and a full time mother.Despite these challenges, I was able to remain on the Presidentâ€™s List of outstanding students for the Spring and Fall of 2006 academic semesters.Â I constantly maintained excellent grades and also found time to do extra-curricular activities such as participate in the Phi Theta Kappa Sorority where I took part and handled a number of community outreach programs.As I mentioned earlier, the world is changing fast and there are many challenges that lie ahead of me.Â I understand that the best way to deal with those challenges is to be prepared and I firmly believe that this (insert name of university here) is the best training ground.Â Equipped with a Masteral Degree in Business Administration, I know that I will be able to become much more and be prepared for the challenges that I will encounter.I am currently working full time at the moment in order to prepare financially for college which I will be attending full time should I be accepted to this prestigious University.Â Since this is the case, I am hoping that an adult online study course will be able to supplement my quest for knowledge and self-improvement for the meantime.In time, I hope to not only create a better future for myself through the help of a fine education but also to create a better future for my two young children who have the whole world ahead of them.While I personally believe that â€œthere is no such thing as a free lunchâ€ and that everything a person has in life must come from hard work and perseverance, I also believe in charity.Â I believe in helping others who do not have much in life.I believe in helping people regardless of their nation, race or creed.Â I believe in being a better person so I can best help myself and others around me.Â I believe that the (Insert name of university here) is the best place for me to turn these beliefs into realities.
12/5/2019 0 Comments
Compensation and Benefits - Essay Example
In this case, in order for an organization to appeal to such employees, and keep them after hiring them, it is essential for them to provide them with competitive compensation packages, including benefits (Ulrich, 2011).
Nonetheless, provision of benefits cost money. For instance, health insurance in the United States is quite expensive. As such, it is true that benefits may result to increased costs, making a firm to incur higher costs and hurt its competitiveness. In this case, it is appropriate for firms to calibrate in a careful manner based on the number of benefits it wishes to offer its employees. An enterprise should be generous enough for it to attract qualified and competitive labor force. However, it should refrain from overpaying employees who are less productive and not worth additional money (Ulrich, 2011).
In a firm, it is true that higher pay and benefits play a major role in attracting and keeping quality employees. Nonetheless, I do not belief that pay is the primary motivating factor for existing employees and job applicants. They look for those firms that are capable of providing them with benefits, such as health insurance, which are some of the most challenging areas for employees to
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.